Monday, 25 October 2010

Bartitsu and the Victorian Gentleman...

I went on a jujitsu/kobudo course on Saturday and one of the experiences on offer was the amazing art of Bartitsu! We only spent about 20 minutes on this as a taster, so we didn't even really scratch the surface. However it did whet my appetite to find out more about it.

Bartitsu is the Victorian gentleman's self-defence system. It is also the martial art of Sherlock Holmes. When you search around the Internet you find that there is actually quite a lot written about it and its founder Edward Barton-Wright so I won't re-iterate it all here (there are some links at the end of this post). Instead, I've found a great mini-documentary about it on YouTube which summarises nicely what it's all about:



The basic premise of Bartitsu is that it is a system based on four different fighting systems that are used together to enable you to cover all distances. The main emphasis is on the Vigny cane fighting system at the striking range and  jujitsu (and, secondarily, the "all-in" style of European wrestling) at the grappling range. Savate and boxing methods were used to segue between these two ranges, or as a means of first response should the defender not be armed with a walking stick.

Barton-Wright was clearly a man ahead of his time. One could easily argue that he was the original cross-trainer and the true father of mixed martial arts. He publicised his art through articles, interviews and demonstrations which he advertised as 'Assaults At Arms'. He also organised challenge matches against fighters representing other combat styles.

On Saturday, at our seminar, we learnt a couple of techniques with the 'swagger stick' which is a stick approximately 2 feet long and which was also used in the military as a 'pacing' stick to make sure soldiers were equally paced from each other when standing in line! These locking and striking techniques were similar to the techniques one might learn with a tanbo. We then had a go with a gentleman's cane, learning to stand in 'Gentleman's stance' and 'Swagger stance' before learning some stick defences similar to ones done with a jo. The sensei who was teaching us was very much into the culture of the art and looked very dapper in his waistcoat and cravat!

Then, of course, there's the Sherlock Holmes link. There is reference to the art of 'baritsu' in Arthur Conan Doyle's book, The Adventure of the Empty House. After years of research historians finally agreed that Conan Doyle was referring to the art of Bartitsu and had just misspelled it! Here's a video about the Sherlock Holmes connection and modern practice:




Here's Sherlock Holmes in action with some Bartitsu in the recent Sherlock Holme's film:



When Barton-Wright's Bartitsu club finally closed in 1902 the art was all but forgotten for the best part of 100 years. However, it is making a big revival in the 21st century. Following the discovery of Barton-Wright's original articles in the British Library by Richard Bowen, the Electronic Journals of Martial Arts and Sciences (EJMAS) web site began to re-publish them in 2001.  They soon attracted a cult following and in 2002 an international association of Bartitsu enthusiasts known as the Bartitsu Society, was formed to research and then revive E.W. Barton-Wright's "New Art of Self Defence". Bartitsu clubs are now popping up all over the place! Here's a video of a 'Victorian self-defence class experience day' , filmed in 2007 (to look Victorian):



I've been fascinated by this Victorian martial art and would love to learn some of the self-defense techniques for ladies with a parasol! I believe Funakoshi effectively defended himself with an umbrella once. Edward Barton-Wright sounds like a remarkable man - a pity he died a pauper, unknown and his martial art all but forgotten during his life-time...

If you want to read more about Bartitsu visit the Bartitsu Society at: http://www.bartitsu.org/

There is also a thorough article about it at Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bartitsu

Illustration at top from:
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8 comments:

John W. Zimmer said...

Sue! Great post. I've been seeing a journal out there with the old fighting methods.. the name escapes me at the moment.

I did a post on Teddy Roosevelt - turned out he received a brown belt in jiu jutsu (actually judo) and found it quite interesting how different cultures had some sharing of martial arts way before commonly known.

SueC said...

Hi John, I find it interesting to see how martial arts are adapted and contextualised to fit in with the needs, culture and fashion of their times. Bartitsu is such a brilliant example of this! I suppose that is what contemporary martial artists are trying to do today with their reality based systems and MMA.

Brian said...

Interesting ,great share! This is a good example of early MMA. Thanks for the links.

Littlefair said...

Thorough post Sue, fantastic!

I have practised and enjoyed the French art of 'La Canne (de Combat)' which was undoubtedly known by Barton Wright. There also exits traditional Korean forms and self defence applications using a walking cane. The form is called Ji pang ee hyung.

When I went to a martial arts fair (MAF-UK) in Brum I got speaking to a guy who headed up an art/style called 'canemasters' which was developed by someone who'd originally trained in a Korean art (maybe Kook Sul Won).

I do find it interesting that maybe (just maybe) this is the art form I'll be relying on when I get old and hobbly... The other thing I need to practice for my old age is effective ukemi I think. Food for thought?

SueC said...

Brian, you're welcome!

Chris, It hadn't occurred to me that these art forms were preparation for old age!LOL. However I know that ukemi is scientifically proven to reduce the fall rate in old people, but I expect you already knew that.

SenseiMattKlein said...

Loved the Sherlock Holmes movie, as he clinically narrated his destruction of his opponent, then did it in full speed. They were clearly ahead of their time, MMA in the 1800s, what a concept! Interesting looking cane, no hook on it.

Ninja Techniques said...

I had no idea Bartitsu was in the new S.H. film. And man, does Robert Downey Jr. look fit!

SueC said...

Matt, I loved the Sherlock Holmes movie as well! The canes we used at the taster session did have hooks on them so I don't think the type of cane used is that important.

Ninja, Robert Downey Jr definitely looked fit.

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